SOMALIA – STUDIU DE CAZ PRIVIND FRAGMENTAREA UNUI STAT OMOGEN ETNIC ŞI CONFESIONAL

Keywords: Somalia; Cornul Africii; Golful Aden; Somaliland; Puntaland; piraterie maritimă; terorism; secesionism

Abstract

Orice curs de geopolitică internă a statului începe prin a afirma că stabilitatea internă şi integritatea teritorială sunt rezultatul interacţiunii dintre forţele secesioniste, centrifuge, şi forţele unificatoare, centripete. Acelaşi curs de geopolitică mai spune că omogenitatea etnică şi confesională se înscrie în categoria celor mai puternice forţe centripete, alături de o formă cât mai rotundă a teritoriului statal, de centralitatea capitalei, de o distribuţie uniformă a infrastructurii de transport şi comunicaţii, de o distribuţie cât mai echitabilă a bogăţiei, de o puternică idee şi voinţă naţională. Somalia este un stat omogen etnic şi confesional. Mai mult, toţi aceşti etnici nu îşi arogă o altă identitate în afara celei somaleze şi cu toţii vorbesc limba somali, limba oficială a statului, alături de arabă – limba Coranului. În Somalia nu se înregistrează uriaşa diversitate lingvistică specifică altor state africane postcoloniale, nu există diferenţe cultural-civilizaționale, nu există discrepanţe majore în privinţa dezvoltării regionale şi a distribuţiei infrastructurii de comunicaţii şi transport în teritoriu. Şi, cu toate acestea, statul somalez reprezintă expresia noţiunii de stat eşuat, răvăşit de război civil, de secesionism, de piraterie maritimă, de terorism, de criminalitate organizată şi de insecuritate. În ultimii ani, Somalia a fost plasată constant în rândul celor mai periculoase destinaţii de pe glob. În prima jumătate a anului 2021, ea se situa pe locul al şaselea în clasamentul celor mai riscante destinaţii turistice, după Afganistan, Siria, Irak, Sudanul de Sud şi Yemen[i]. Care sunt cauzele secesionismului somalez şi ale prăbuşirii statului? Şi, dacă ar fi să ierarhizăm, în funcţie de intensitatea efectului, factorii secesionişti care acţionează pe teritoriul Somaliei, care ar fi ordinea acestora?

 

[i] *** ”Most Dangerous Countries in the World”, World Population Review, https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/most-dangerous-countries, accesat la 11.07.2021.

Author Biography

Alba Iulia Catrinel POPESCU, " Carol I" National Defence University

Alba Iulia Catrinel Popescu is Associate Professor at the National College of Defense Bucharest and "Carol I" National Defense University, Visiting Professor at University of Business and Enterprise in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski - Poland and University of Bucharest, Romania. She is also member of the Romanian Committee of History and Philosophy of Science and Technology of the Romanian Academy, member of the "Ion Conea" Romanian Association for Geopolitics and member of the international advisory board of the Research Institute for European and American Studies, Greece. She already published five books - “What hides behind Boko Haram” (a monographic study about one of the bloodiest terrorist organization), “The Shadow Player” (an extensive and integrate analysis about Sub-Saharan Africa’s pivot zone character), “Geopolitical Kaleidoscope” (a collection of analyses in geopolitics and geostrategy), "Uncomfortable Analysis" (a collection of studies in geopolitics), "Geopolitics and pandemics" (a study regarding the geopolitical impact of the current pandemics), the first two volumes of the "Treaty of Geopolitics" (The Geopolitics of the Maritime Power and The Geopolitics of the Continental Power), other studies in security and demography as well as numerous articles regarding strategic analysis and geopolitics.

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Published
2021-10-12
Section
Articole