• Cosmina-Andreea NECULCEA
  • Florian RĂPAN



information operations (InfoOps); doctrines; comparative analysis; differences; doctrinal interoperability.


The aim of this article is to identify differences in doctrinal projection at the level of the North Atlantic Alliance. The article has been designed as a comparative study of the doctrinal projections specific to information operations (InfoOps), mainly with regard to the doctrines and operations manuals of the United States of America, as the originator of most of these documents, NATO doctrines and domestic doctrines. On an initial examination of the three doctrinal projections, it can be observed that there are differences in the InfoOps approach, both in terms of surface elements, recognized by identifiable markers, and differences in perspective, which allow and encourage interpretation. There is therefore a need to clarify the nature of InfoOps and its correct understanding from a conceptual and practical point of view, and to achieve coherence between the doctrines for information operations of NATO member states and the allied doctrine.


Dominique, Michael. 2009. Information operations: the military’s role in gaining information superiority, U.S. Army War College.

Gage, Daniel. 2014. The continuing evolution of Strategic Communication within NATO, The Three Swords Magazine, 27/ 2014

Headquarters, Department of the Army. 1996. FM 100-6 Information Operations,

Hentea, Călin. 2008. Noi dimensiuni ale războiului contemporan, „Revista Română de Sociologie”, serie nouă, anul XIX, nr. 3–4, p. 289–306, Bucureşti.

Joint Chiefs of Staff. 1998. “Joint Pub 3-13 Joint Doctrine for Information Operations”.

–. 2006. “Joint Publication 3-13 Information Operations”.

–. 2014. “Joint Publication 3-13 Information Operations”.

–. 2020. “Joint Publication 3-14 Space operations”.

Lesenciuc, Adrian. 2016. Războiul informațional. Editura Academiei Forțelor Aeriene „Henri Coandă”, Brașov.

Myesr, Meghan. 2017. The Army's psychological operations community is getting its name back.

NATO Standardization Agency. 2009. Allied Joint Doctrine for Information Operations 3.10.

NATO Standardization Office. 2015. Allied Joint Doctrine for Information Operations 3.10. Edition A Version 1.

Prats I Amorós, Joam, Guillaume-Barry, Augustin. 2019. Not Only Blood. The Need to Integrate Psychological Operations in the West’s Military Culture, Instituto Español de Estudios Estratégicos, Opinion Paper IEEE 81/2019.

Statul Major General. 2006. Doctrina Operaţiilor Informaţionale.

–. 2011. Doctrina pentru operaţii informaţionale a Armatei României.

–. 2017. Doctrina Operaţiilor Informaţionale, Ediţia a 2-a.

TŪTINS, Māris. 2015. Strategic Communication and Protecting Environment in Military Training Areas. NATO StratCom COE.

Vowel, JB. 2016. Maskirovka: From Russia, With Deception.