Strategic Impact <p><em>Strategic Impact</em> is a peer-reviewed, open access Journal, publishing scholarly articles in the field of defence and security strategic studies. The journal is edited by the Centre for Defence and Security Strategic Studies and published by “Carol I” National Defence University Publishing House in Bucharest, Romania. Its scope covers political-military topicality; UN, NATO and EU policies, strategies and actions; defence and security concepts; international relations; geopolitics, geostrategy, geoeconomy; (un)conventional risks and threats; conflict &amp; crises management; peace and war; military strategy; information society; cybersecurity; intelligence studies. The journal is published in two separate editions, in Romanian since 2001 and in English since 2005, it has ISSN and is acknowledged both nationally, by CNATDCU authority and internationally, being indexed in several databases.</p> "Carol I" National Defence University en-US Strategic Impact 1841-5784 EDITOR’S NOTE Iulia Cojocaru Copyright (c) 2023 Strategic Impact 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 86 1 5 7 GUIDE FOR AUTHORS Iulia Cojocaru Copyright (c) 2023 Strategic Impact 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 86 1 147 151 IMPLICATIONS OF DEFENCE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ON NATIONAL OBJECTIVES <p>The new international context justifies an analysis of the priorities, interests and objectives of the Pontic states in relation to an immediate reaction to discourage the armed conflict initiated by Russia and unjustified in terms of international humanitarian law. NATO and the EU have recently intensified the conduct of large-scale maritime exercises to promote stability and peace and strengthen the Alliance’s Eastern Flank, and have consistently encouraged cooperation between outgoing states on the Black Sea. Although Russia’s energy dependence on some Pontic states could be a problem for the mutual agreement on strategic negotiations and partnerships, NATO and the EU must join forces to take concrete and deterrent action to maintain regional and international order alike. The present article aims to highlight the importance of the Black Sea for the Pontic states, having as the premise of the scientific research the fact that nowadays it represents an important cross-border resource both for the security of the states in the region and for the security of NATO and the EU.</p> Simona-Daniela BORDEA Copyright (c) 2023 Strategic Impact 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 86 1 38 66 10.53477/1842-9904-23-03 IDENTIFYING POST-DISASTER PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS AND POSSIBILITIES TO REDUCE POTENTIAL DAMAGES <p>Disasters can endanger and harm people’s lives, health and properties, the basic living conditions of the population, the natural and built environment, and natural values. Therefore, one should always calculate with some kind of an accompanying psychic effect. It is important to deal with the analysis and presentation of psychic phenomena shortly or long after the disasters. In the present article, we are attempting to present a comprehensive summary of the issue. After systemizing the causes of disasters and the features of incident sites, we identify and map the expected psychic consequences, searching for protection options and solutions. The article discusses the psychological effects of terrorism as well.</p> László TEKNŐS Copyright (c) 2023 Strategic Impact 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 86 1 67 91 10.53477/1842-9904-23-04 CONVERGENCE AND PRAGMATISM IN STRUCTURING THE EU DEFENCE PLANNING PROCESS. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE COORDINATED ANNUAL REVIEW ON DEFENCE (CARD) <p>European defence cooperation has recently made significant progress in a wide range of instruments aimed in particular at streamlining the way in which defence capabilities are generated under the auspices of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). In this context, there is also an interest in optimising the defence planning process by strengthening the integrated nature and ensuring interconnectivity between the different CSDP-related initiatives, such as the Permanent Structured Cooperation, the European Defence Fund or the Capability Development Plan. Thus, the launch of the Coordinated Annual Review on Defence (CARD) is an endeavour to help harmonise these initiatives by identifying concrete opportunities for cooperation between Member States and making recommendations to guide cooperation between Member States. The potential of CARD has been preliminary tested within two operating cycles, with promising results and practical effects in generating optimal formulas for the use of Member States’ resources. From this perspective, the study aims to deepen the way CARD contributes to the creation of an integrated framework for the functioning of European defence cooperation. The article also proposes a comprehensive perspective by analysing how CARD contributes to guiding the interaction between Member States on the capability dimension and, last but not least, to strengthening EU-NATO complementarity. The main premise of this approach is precisely to value the potential of CARD to ensure the sustainability of cooperation under the aegis of CSDP. At the same time, the overriding interest of Member States in ensuring the transposition of the recommendations and cooperation priorities identified by CARD at the level of national defence planning processes is considered.</p> Dragoș ILINCA Copyright (c) 2023 Strategic Impact 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 86 1 92 102 10.53477/1842-9904-23-05 CONFLICT AND PEACE IN WESTERN SAHARA Szilveszter PÓCZIK Copyright (c) 2023 Strategic Impact 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 86 1 135 142 THE EFFECTS OF THE UKRAINIAN WAR ON THE LEGAL SYSTEM AND INTERNATIONAL ORDER <p>Russia’s invasion in Ukraine, in February 2022, marked the re-emergence of war as a social phenomenon on the European continent, but it also represented a clear signal of challenging the international order based on the UN legal system. Moreover, the continuation of this conflict, despite the measures taken by the international community, has triggered doubts regarding the system’s degree of functionality underlying the international order, in the context of new global challenges. Also, as the conflict in Ukraine prolongs, the policies of the great powers, but also that of small and medium-sized states fearful for their survival, are changing, which will obviously lead to a recalibration of the international order. Therefore, the purpose of this research focuses on establishing the degree of resilience of the current international security system and what transformative trends are identified in the international law system and in the global order in general, but also as effects of the development of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. In this respect, the main research method is the content analysis of certain international legal documents and statements of some government officials, the conclusions being later translated into an empirical interpretation that helps to achieve the purpose of the research.</p> Mirela ATANASIU Copyright (c) 2023 Strategic Impact 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 86 1 9 24 10.53477/1842-9904-23-01 NATO-ISRAEL COOPERATION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE RUSSIA-UKRAINE WAR <p>Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has shifted NATO’s attention to its eastern flank and raised the importance of collective defence. However, the transatlantic alliance has spent long years to build up its reputation as a security provider in the Middle East as well, in the southern strategic direction. The current paper analyses the state of NATO’s efforts on the southern flank, using its partnership with Israel as a case study. It argues that, in the context of the Russia-Ukraine war, robust NATO cooperation in the South, having Israel as a key pillar, is more important than ever, even though it is a low priority on NATO’s agenda in 2023 because of the ongoing war.</p> Zsolt CSEPREGI Copyright (c) 2023 Strategic Impact 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 86 1 23 37 10.53477/1842-9904-23-02 HUMOROUS SATIRICAL MEME ̶ ONLINE INFLUENCE TOOL <p>In the era of communication, internet and social networks, memes have acquired a huge power to disseminate and influence people. This phenomenon is mainly due to the ease with which a message resonates with people and with one’s friends and acquaintances, the lack of regulation of digital communication channels, and the way social media algorithms are programmed. They tend to favour the financial profit of social media platforms and less to combat bots, fake accounts and the propagation of misleading messages. In this paper, I will analyse and explain why humorous satirical memes have come to be used in influence actions and campaigns and why they have increased effectiveness, especially among trained people, compared to other techniques. The argumentation is built on two dimensions: that of genetic baggage and programming, together with the chemistry of the human body, where hormones play a very important role and that of the social, tribal dimension, where man is a being who wants and needs belonging to a group to feel safe, accepted and valued.</p> Cristian Ionel HAIDĂU Copyright (c) 2023 Strategic Impact 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 86 1 103 121 10.53477/1842-9904-23-06 WORKSHOP ON LESSONS IDENTIFIED IN THE RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN CONFLICT - March 23rd, 2023- Raluca STAN Copyright (c) 2023 Strategic Impact 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 86 1 143 146 TRANSNISTRIA FROM THE FORMATION OF THE MOLDAVIAN AUTONOMOUS SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC TO ITS INTEGRATION INTO THE MOLDAVIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC(1924-1940) <p>The creation of autonomous regions on the territory of the union republics of the newly created Soviet state was a practice often used by the communist regime to resubordinate the provinces lost at the end of the First World War. In order to theoretically preserve the chance to integrate the former province of Bessarabia into the new empire during 1924, the new Kremlin leader Joseph Stalin decided to form a republic and a new people, the Moldavian SSR and the Moldavian people distinct from the Romanian one. This decision proved to be catastrophic for the Romanians living in Bessarabia over the next 100 years, who in this way could be forced to link their fate to Russia.</p> Andi Mihail BĂNCILĂ Copyright (c) 2023 Strategic Impact 2023-06-08 2023-06-08 86 1 122 134 10.53477/ 1842-9904-23-07