THE ROLE OF PERMANENT STRUCTURED COOPERATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DEFENCE CAPABILITIES
Keywords:capabilities; PESCO; CSDP; Lisbon Treaty; European Defence Agency; Military Committee; EU Military Staff.
European cooperation in the field of defence has registered significant progress in the last years, both from an operational perspective as well as in terms of developing security and defence capabilities. Against this background, several initiatives have been launched to address the issue of capabilities development by gearing multinational cooperation formulas towards filling the gaps identified in the defence planning under the aegis of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). The Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO), an initiative launched on November 13, 2017, through the Joint Notification signed by the ministers of foreign affairs and defence from 25 EU Member States, plays a decisive role in the success of this endeavor. As an expression of the intergovernmental nature of the security and defence dimension at EU level, PESCO has rapidly evolved into a platform for cooperation between Member States in the development of defence capabilities, covering a wide range of areas. Thus, in less than five years, PESCO encompassed 60 cooperation projects. Moreover, at the end of February 2022, the first capability developed under this initiative was activated in an operational context. These aspects were meant to highlight the potential that the Permanent Structured Cooperation can employ in supportting the process of developing the EU’s security and defence profile and contribution.
Blockmans, Steven & Crosson, Dylan Macchiarini. PESCO: A Force for Positive Integration in EU Defence, European Foreign Affairs Review 26, Special Issue (2021), Kluwer Law International BV
European Council, 2003, European Council Conclusions, https://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-217-2013-INIT/en/pdf
European Council, 2012, European Council Conclusions, 13-14 December 2012, https://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/ec/134353.pdf
European Council, 2016, Implementation Plan on Security and Defence, 14 November 2016, https://www.eeas.europa.eu/sites/default/files/eugs_implementation_plan_st14392.en16_0.pdf
European Council, 2017, Declaration on PESCO projects, https://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/32020/draft-pesco-declaration-clean-10122017.pdf
European Council, 2017, Notification on Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) to the Council and to the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Bruxelles, November 2017, https://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/31511/171113-pesco-notification.pdf
European Council, 2017, Council Decision (CFSP) 2017/2315 of 11 December 2017 establishing permanent structured cooperation (PESCO) and determining the list of participating Member States.
European Council, 2018, Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/340 of 6 March 2018 establishing the list of projects to be developed under PESCO.
European Council, 2018, Council Decision (CFSP) 2018/909 of 25 June 2018 establishing a common set of governance rules for PESCO projects.
European Council, 2018, Council Recommendation of 15 October 2018 concerning the sequencing of the fulfilment of the more binding commitments undertaken in the framework of permanent structured cooperation (PESCO) and specifying more precise objectives (2018/C 374/01).
European Council, 2019, Council Recommendation of 14 May 2019 assessing the progress made by the participating Member States to fulfil commitments undertaken in the framework of permanent structured cooperation (PESCO) (2019/C 166/01).
European Council, 2020, Council Recommendation of 15 June 2020 assessing the progress made by the participating Member States to fulfil commitments undertaken in the framework of permanent structured cooperation (PESCO) (2020/C 204/01).
European Council, 2021, Council Recommendation of 16 November 2021 assessing the progress made by the participating Member States to fulfil commitments undertaken in the framework of permanent structured cooperation (PESCO) (2021/C 464/02).
European Defence Agency, 2007, Defence Data 2007, Bruxelles.
European Defence Agency, 2018, EU Capability Development Priorities, Bruxelles.
European Defence Agency, 2020, CARD Report 2020, Bruxelles.
European External Action Service, 2016, Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe. A Global Strategy for European Union’s Foreign and Security Policy, Bruxelles.
Fiott, Daniel, 2018, EU Security Studies Institute.EU defence capability development. Plans, priorities, projects, EUISS Brief, No. 6, 2018.
Official Journal of European Union C326, 2012, Treaty of Lisbon (Consolidated Version), Volume 55, 26 October 2012.