STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION – ELEMENT OF INFLUENCE ESSENTIAL IN EXERCISING POWER - SOFT POWER OR SMART POWER?

  • Teodora Antonia MARIȘ

Abstract

This article proposes, first of all, an analysis of how the concept of power has evolved and is perceived in the 21st century and a conceptual delimitation of hard power, soft power and smart power. Secondly, within the article we will find a description of the importance of strategic communication as an element of influence of power, concrete examples of its manifestation and a classification of this process in a form of use of power as defined in the first part of the material.

 

Keywords: soft power (SP); hard power (HP); smart power (SmP); strategic communication; power; persuasion; influence.

References

*** About Strategic Comunications, https://www.stratcomcoe.org/about-strategic-communications, accessed on 02.06.09.2020.
*** MC 0422/6- NATO Military Policy on Strategic Communications, Nord-Atlantic |Council, https://shape.nato.int/resources/3/images/2018/upcoming%20events/MC%20Draft_Info%20Ops.pdf, p.6, accessed on 02.06.2020.
*** Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, US DoD, 2017.
Buluc Ruxandra, ,,Perception and intelligence analysis. Belifes, mindsets and their cognitive consequences”, Strategy changes in security and international relations, Vol. 3, ”Carol I” National Defence University, Bucharest, 2014.
Bușe Dorel, Relații internaționale. Curs universitar, ”Carol I” National Defence University, Bucharest, 2019.
Buzan Barry, Popoarele, statele și teama ‒ o agendă pentru studii de securitate internațională în epoca de după Războiul Rece, Cartier Publishing House, Chișinău, 2000.
Cathala Henri-Pierre, Epoca dezinformării, Military Publishing House, Bucharest, 1991.
Davis A., Everything you should know about public relations, Kogan Page Publishers, 2003.
Deac Ioan, Buluc Ruxandra, ,,Dezvoltarea conceptuală a comunicării strategice în domeniul securității”, Impact Strategic, no. 1-2(70-71)/2019, ”Carol I” National Defence University, Center for Strategic and Security Studies, Bucharest, 2019.
Dobbins James, Scobell Andrew, Burke Edmund, Gompert David, Grossman Derek, Heginbotham Eric, Shatz Howard, Conflict with China Revisites ‒ Prospects, Consequences, and Strategies for Deterrence, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, 2017.
Ellul Jacques, Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes, Vintage, 1973.
Frunzeti Teodor, Geostrategie, Technic-Editorial Center of Romanian Army Publishing House, Bucharest, 2009.
Goffman E., Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience, London, Harper and Row, 1974.
Gompert David, Binnendijk Hans, Lin Bonny, Blinders, Blunders, and Wars ‒ what America and China can Learn, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, 2014.
Heath Timothy, The China Dream: Never Closer, Yet Never More Elusive, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, 2019.
Heilmann Sebastian, Moritz Rudolf, Mikko Huotari, Buckow Johannes, ,,China’s Shadow Foreign Policy: Parallel Structures Challenge the Established International Order”, China Monitor, Nr. 18, 28 October, Merics (Mercator Institute for China Studies), 2014.
Hentea C., Propaganda în război, Cetatea de scaun Publishing House, Bucharest, 2008.
Murphy Dennis, The trouble with Strategic Communication(s), Center of Strategic Leadership, US Army War College, Vol. 2-08, January 2008.
Nye Joseph S. Jr., Soft Power – The means to success in world politics, Public Affairs, New York, 2004.
Nye Joseph S. Jr., The Powers To lead, Oxford University Press, New York, 2008.
Nye Joseph S.Jr., The Future of Power, Public Affairs, New York, 2011.
Raimzhanova Aigerim, Power in IR: Hard, Soft and Smart, http://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/academy/content/pdf/participant-papers/2015-12_annual/Power-In-Ir-By-Raimzhanova,-A.pdf
Volkoff V., Tratat de dezinformare, Antet Publishing House, Bucharest, 2007.
https://intelligence.sri.ro/
http://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/
https://foreignpolicy.com/
https://www.stratcomcoe.org/
https://shape.nato.int/
https://www.rand.org/
Published
2020-10-20
Section
Articole