AI-Centric secure outer space operations
Keywords:Artificial Intelligence (AI), Outer space, Space security, Conflict in outer space, Dynamics of warfare, Strategic decisions.
This article critically assesses the transformative role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in military operations, focusing on terrestrial warfare and outer space security. It offers four main points of discussion: 1) An evaluation of AI applications in terrestrial warfare, using real-world technologies such as Project Maven and BAE Systems’ Taranis; 2) an examination of AI’s contributions and risks in the field of cybersecurity; 3) an in-depth look at AI’s growing influence in space security, including technical aspects of systems like the U.S. Space-Based Infrared and the European Data Relay System; 4) an analysis of the ethical and policy challenges associated with AI deployment, informed by the author’s viewpoints on the necessity of international regulation. Drawing from various case studies and expert consultations, the article highlights AI’s capabilities in enhancing decision-making and operational efficiency while discussing the ethical and technical complexities it introduces. The study concludes by offering nuanced recommendations for responsibly integrating AI into military strategies and policies, especially those concerning space security. The aim is to inform and guide military professionals and policymakers by providing actionable insights for responsible decisionmaking in AI-augmented conflict scenarios on Earth and in space.
BAE Systems. n.d. „Taranis.” Accesat 9 august 2023. https://www.baesystems.com/en/product/taranis.
Bistron, M. and P. Zbigniew. 2021. ”Artificial Intelligence Applications in Military Systems and Their Influence on Sense of Security of Citizens.” Electronics 10 (7): 871-890. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10070871.
Bradshaw, S. and P. N. Howard. 2019. The global disinformation disorder: 2019 global inventory of organised social media manipulation. Oxford Internet Institute.
Buchanan, B. 2017. ”The Cybersecurity Dilemma: Hacking, Trust and Fear Between Nations.” doi:10.1093/acprofoso9780190665012.001.0001.
Davis, S.I. 2022. ”Artificial intelligence at the operational level of war.” Defense and Security Analysis 38 (1): 74-90. doi:10.1080/14751798.2022.2031692.
European Space Agency (ESA). n.d. ”European Data Relay Satellite System (EDRS) Overview.” Accesat 9 august 2023. https://connectivity.esa.int/european-data-relay-satellitesystem-edrs-overview.
Farhad, Manjoo. 2017. ”Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times.
Forrest, E.M., B. Boudreaux, A.J. Lohn, M. Ashby, C. Curriden, K. Klima and D. Grossman. 2020. Military Applications of Artificial Intelligence: Ethical Concerns in an Uncertain World. Santa Monica: Editor RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR3139-1.html.
Fourati, F. and M.S. Alouini. 2021. ”Artificial intelligence for satellite communication: A review.” Intelligent and Converged Networks 2 (3): 213-243. doi:10.23919/ICN.2021.0015.
Gargalakos, M. 2021. ”The role of unmanned aerial vehicles in military communications: application scenarios, current trends, and beyond.” The Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation.
Hester, G., C. Smith, P. Day and A. Waldock. 2012. ”The Next Generation of Unmanned Ground Vehicles.” Measurement - Control, Vol 45/4 May: 117-121.
Horowitz, M.C. 2018. ”The promise and peril of military applications of artificial intelligence.” https://thebulletin.org/2018/04/the-promise-and-peril-of-military-applications-of-artificialintelligence/.
Johansson, L. 2018. ”Ethical Aspects of Military Maritime and Aerial Autonomous Systems.” Journal of Military Ethics, 17 (2-3): 140-155. doi:10.1080/15027570.2018.1552512.
Johnson-Freese, J. and R. Handberg. 2018. Space, the Dormant Frontier: Changing the Paradigm for the Twenty-First Century. Praeger.
Kessler, D. J. and B. G. Cour-Palais. 1978. ”Collision frequency of artificial satellites: The creation of a debris belt.” Journal of Geophysical Research 83 (A6): 2637-2646.
LaSalle, Peter. 2017. ”Conundrum:A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38(1): 95-109. Project MUSE.
Lockheedmartin,. n.d. ”Early Missile Warning: Space Based-Infrared System (SBIRS).” Accesat 9 august 2023. https://www.lockheedmartin.com/en-us/products/sbirs.html.
Maxwell, P. 2020. ”Artificial intelligence is the future of warfare (just not in the way you think).” https://mwi.westpoint.edu/artificial-intelligence-future-warfare-just-not-way-think/.
Munim, Z.I., M. Dushenko, V. Jaram, V.J. Jimenez, M.H. Shakil and M. Imset. 2020. ”Big data and artificial intelligence in the maritime industry: a bibliometric review and future research directions.” Maritime Policy & Management 47 (5): 577-597. doi:10.1080/03088839.2020.1788731.
Pedrozo, R. 2023. ”Advent of a New Era in Naval Warfare: Autonomous and Unmanned Systems.” In Autonomous Vessels in Maritime Affairs. Studies in National Governance and Emerging Technologies, by T.M. Johansson, J.E. Fernández, D. Dalaklis, A. Pastra and J.A. Skinner. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1007/978-3-031-24740-8_4.
Russell, S., D. Dewey and M. Tegmark. 2015. ”Research Priorities for Robust and Beneficial Artificial Intelligence.” AI Magazine 36 (4): 105-14. doi:https://doi.org/10.1609/aimag.v36i4.2577.
Scharre, P. and M. C. Horowitz. 2018. ”Artificial Intelligence: What Every Policymaker Needs to Know.” https://s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/files.cnas.org/hero/documents/CNAS_AI_FINAL-v2.pdfmtime=20180619100112&focal=none.
Shakarian, P., J. Shakarian and A. Ruef. 2013. Introduction to Cyber Warfare: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Syngress.
Strout, N. 2022. ”Intelligence agency takes over Project Maven, the Pentagon’s signature AI scheme.” https://www.c4isrnet.com/intel-geoint/2022/04/27/intelligence-agency-takes-overproject-maven-the-pentagons-signature-ai-scheme/.
Szabadföldi, I. 2021. ”Artificial Intelligence in Military Application – Opportunities and Challenges.” Land Forces Academy Review 26 (2 (3921)): 157-165. doi:https://doi.org/10.2478/raft-2021-0022.
Wavell Room. 2023. ”The Future of Defense: The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Modern Warfare.” https://wavellroom.com/2023/01/27/artificial-intelligence/.
How to Cite
The published articles are subject to copyright law. All rights are reserved to the “Carol I” National Defense University, regardless of whether all or part of the material are considered, especially the rights to translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, quotations, broadcasting through the media, reproduction on microfilms or any other way and storage in data banks. Any replicas without the associated fees are authorized provided the source is acknowledged.