The actions of the Russian Federation from the perspective of individual responsibility


  • Dragoș-Adrian BANTAȘ Universitatea „Nicolae Titulescu”
  • Sebastian BĂLĂNICĂ Faculty of Political Science, University of Bucharest



Russia;, realism;, use of violence;, systemic aggressor;, directions of expansion;, threat perception;, individual responsibility


In international relations, each state has historically pursued its own interests by various means. Although these have not always taken a violent form (for example, there are international actors such as the empires of successive Chinese dynasties which, in their
relations with their neighbours, emphasized the respect for the emperor and prestige at the expense of violence, or the Ottoman Empire which, after its initial expansion phase, created a concentric system of peripheral actors with varying degrees of autonomy), before the signing of the UN Charter, the use of violence was not definitively forbidden between them either. More precisely, there are actors who, since then and as a result of successive changes in regimes and international orientations, have renounced the use of force or have severely limited it, making it at least predictable, and actors who, regardless of regime and context, adopt the same behaviour. In our view, Russia falls into the second category


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