Hybrid – defining the concept of the 21st century warfare, operations and threats


  • LUPULESCU Georgiana-Daniela Ministerul Apărării Naționale




amenințări hibride;, război hibrid;, operații psihologice;, cyber;, terorism;, dezinformare;, propagandă


Hybrid threats, as well as hybrid war, have become our century’s constant, receiving
numerous definitions over time, which clarify to a greater or lesser extent these concepts
characterized mainly by ambiguity both in terms of means, as well as the forces involved or
the geographical area of combat. It can be deemed at least as derisive to try to define a concept that arose from the need to include everything that is known in terms of techniques, means, methods and tools, but also what will appear in the not-too-distant future, thanks to the rapid technological evolution, used by state actors and non-states in an attempt to achieve their most diverse goals, be they military, political, social or even economic. This paper aims to provide a brief overview of the relevant literature on hybrid threats, operations and warfare, starting from the first attempt to define them and up to new attributes added in the meantime. We will analyze the characteristics, types, actors involved, and objectives pursued by them, resulting from the combination of several techniques, methods or tools.


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How to Cite

Georgiana-Daniela, . L. (2023). Hybrid – defining the concept of the 21st century warfare, operations and threats. BULLETIN OF "CAROL I" NATIONAL DEFENCE UNIVERSITY, 12(2), 56–68. https://doi.org/10.53477/2284-9378-23-20