• Cezar POPA



command and control system; high altitudes; mountain operations; artificial intelligence; technique; technology.


Mountainous areas located at high altitudes, hardly accessible, are used as safe heavens and staging areas by various asymmetrical groups. Addressing these challenges in areas of operations located at high altitudes requires the existence of specific capabilities for command and control. C2 based on mission command must be adapted to the current requirements generated by conflicts with variable geometry, mosaic type conflicts, composite, multifaceted, multi-layered, multi-domain conflicts. Command and control systems should have architectural flexibility, intelligent digitised platforms and its modules should be perfectly functionall and interoperable (based on self-sufficiency ‒ extended capability to operate over time). We believe that, at high altitudes, the architecture of a complex command and control system must be modular and designed as a coherent integrator of sensors, decision-makers, performers and support capabilities, interconnected in subsystems that ensure the planning, preparation, execution and effective evaluation of military actions. In the conditions of diversification of risks and threats in the multidimensional operational environment, the architecture of the command and control systems must be permanently adapted in order to ensure real-time, horizontal and vertical communication between forces, support structures and command-control structures.




*** Brussels Summit Declaration, 2018.
*** NATO Allied Joint Doctrine for Intelligence Procedures AJP-2.1.
*** NATO Allied Joint Doctrine for Intelligence, Counter-Intelligence and Security AJP-2(A).
*** Russian Exoskeleton Project, Russia՚s latest combat exoskeleton to boost fire accuracy by 20%, TASS Russian news agency, 2021.
[DARPA], Strategic Technology Office Outlines Vision for Mosaic Warfare, August 4, 2017,
[US Joint Staff], Charter of The Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) and Implementation of The Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS), CJCSI 5123.01H, 2018; DoD, The Defence Acquisition System, DoDD 5000.01, 2018, JROC-and-Implementation-of-the-JCIDS-31-Aug-2018.pdf
Blandy, North Caucasus, The Advent of Mountain Brigades, Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, 2007.
Cavalcanti Tiago, Giannitsarou Chryssi, Johnson R. Charles, ”Network Cohesion”, Economic Theory 64, no. 1, 2017.
Clark Bryan, Patt Dan, Schramm Harrison, Mosaic Warfare expoiting artificial intelligence and autonomous systems to implement decision – centric operations, Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, 2020.
Johnson David, ”An Army Caught in the Middle Between Luddites, Luminaries, and the Occasional Looney”, War on the Rocks, 2018.
Lehaci Niculai-Tudorel, Tendințe în evoluția sistemului de comandă și control la nivel operativ, ”Carol I” National Defence University Publishing House, Bucharest, 2015.
Leonhard Robert, The Art of Maneuver: Maneuver Warfare Theory and AirLand Battle, Ballantine Books, New York, 1991.
Mattis James, Summary of the 2018 National Defence Strategy of the United States of America, Washington DC, DoD, 2018,
Pellerin Cheryl, Project Maven Industry Day Pursues Artificial Intelligence for DoD Challenges, DoD Newsroom, 2017,
Popa Cezar, Strategii, concepte și procedee de eficientizare a procesului decizional, Scientific report no. 2, ”Carol I” National Defence University, Bucharest, 2021.
Popa Cezar, Structuri, sisteme, echipamente și tehnologii moderne în compunerea sistemelor de comandă și control, Scientific report no. 1, ”Carol I” National Defence University, Bucharest 2020.
Sasser W. Charles, ”The F-117 Nighthawk՚s Near-Perfect Combat Record”, Military Times, 2018. JROC-and-Implementation-of-the-JCIDS-31-Aug-2018