• Alba Iulia Catrinel POPESCU Membru afiliat al Comitetului Român pentru Istoria și Filosofia Științei și Tehnicii (CRIFST) din cadrul Academiei Române



Somalia, Horn of Africa, Gulf of Aden, Somaliland, Puntland, maritime piracy, terrorism, secessionism.


Any lecture in geopolitics begins by stating that internal stability and territorial integrity of the state are the result of the interaction between secessionist, centrifugal forces, and unifying, centripetal forces. The same lecture in geopolitics also says that ethnic and confessional homogeneity falls into the category of the strongest centripetal forces, along with a round shape of the state territory, the centrality of the capital, a uniform distribution of transport and communications infrastructure, an equitable (as possible) distribution of wealth, of a strong national idea and will.

Ethnically and religiously, Somalia is a homogeneous state. Moreover, all these ethnics do not boast of an identity other than Somali, and they all speak Somali - the official language of the state, along with Arabic - the language of the Koran. Somalia does not have the huge linguistic diversity specific to other post-colonial African states, there are no cultural-civilizational differences, there are no major discrepancies in terms of regional development and distribution of communications and transport infrastructure in the territory. And yet, the Somali state is the expression of the notion of a failed state, ravaged by civil war, secessionism, maritime piracy, terrorism, organized crime and insecurity. In recent years, Somalia has been consistently ranked among the most dangerous destinations in the world. In the first half of 2021, it ranked sixth in the top of the riskiest tourist destinations, after Afghanistan, Syria, Iraq, South Sudan and Yemen[i].

What are the causes of Somali secessionism and the collapse of the state? And, if we were to rank, according to the intensity of the effect, the secessionist factors acting on the territory of Somalia, what would be their ord


1 Most Dangerous Countries in the World, World Population Review,, accessed on 11.07. 2021.

Author Biography

Alba Iulia Catrinel POPESCU, Membru afiliat al Comitetului Român pentru Istoria și Filosofia Științei și Tehnicii (CRIFST) din cadrul Academiei Române

Alba Iulia Catrinel Popescu is Associate Professor at the National College of Defense Bucharest and "Carol I" National Defense University, Visiting Professor at University of Business and Enterprise in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski - Poland and University of Bucharest, Romania. She is also member of the Romanian Committee of History and Philosophy of Science and Technology of the Romanian Academy, member of the "Ion Conea" Romanian Association for Geopolitics and member of the international advisory board of the Research Institute for European and American Studies, Greece. She already published five books - “What hides behind Boko Haram” (a monographic study about one of the bloodiest terrorist organization), “The Shadow Player” (an extensive and integrate analysis about Sub-Saharan Africa’s pivot zone character), “Geopolitical Kaleidoscope” (a collection of analyses in geopolitics and geostrategy), "Uncomfortable Analysis" (a collection of studies in geopolitics), "Geopolitics and pandemics" (a study regarding the geopolitical impact of the current pandemics), the first two volumes of the "Treaty of Geopolitics" (The Geopolitics of the Maritime Power and The Geopolitics of the Continental Power), other studies in security and demography as well as numerous articles regarding strategic analysis and geopolitics.


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